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- PósterCan we be “out” of our body? Characterization and clinical implications of out-of-body experiences during sleep paralysis: Preliminary results(2021) Herrero, Nerea; Gallo, Francisco; Forcato, Cecilia"Sleep paralysis is a period of transitory immobility which occurs during sleep onset or offset. It is characterized by the inability to perform voluntary movements when the person feels awake and conscious about the environment. During an episode of sleep paralysis can occur different types of hallucinations: The Intruder, characterized by the sense of an evil and threatening presence, visual and tactile hallucinations. The Incubus, characterized pressure on the chest and other body parts, breathing difficulties, feelings of suffocation, choking, pain and morbid thoughts of imminent death. Unusual body experiences which includes Illusory Movement Experiences (IMEs) and Out of Body Experiences (OBEs). IMEs are vestibular sensations such as the sensation of rolling or floating, and/or motor sensations of displacement without a visual component.The OBEs are an altered state of consciousness, defined as the experience in which an observer perceives the world from a point of view outside of their physical body. Unlike the other two components (incubus and intruder), during IMEs and OBEs the person may not feel body paralysis, and they are considered as more pleasant. OBEs during sleep paralysis can occur spontaneously or it can be induced with training by the recognition of an aura that precedes the experience. Here, we will discuss preliminary results of an online survey with subjects who had unusual sleep experiences, such as OBEs and Sleep Paralysis and its clinical implications."
- PósterCued memory reactivation is more effective during slow wave sleep than sleep stage 2(2020) Carbone, Julia; Forcato, Cecilia; Born, Jan; Diekelmann, Susanne"Compare cued memory reactivation during Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) and sleep Stage 2 (S2)."
- PósterDeclarative memory consolidation dynamics: new time windows and its implications for clinical application(2020) Moyano, Malen D.; Bonilla, Matías; Blanco, Marcelo F.; Brusco, Luis Ignacio; Pedreira, María Eugenia; Kaczer, Laura; Forcato, Cecilia"After encoding, memories go through a labile state followed by a stabilization process known as consolidation. Once consolidated they can enter a new labile state after the presentation of a reminder (cue) of the original memory, followed by a period of re-stabilization (reconsolidation). In both processes, once stabilization/re-stabilization is accomplished the memory cannot be modified. Currently there are studies that show a rapid stabilization after 30 min, while others studies show that stabilization occurs after 6h. However, there are no studies evaluating short and long delays simultaneously. Knowing that there are spontaneous waves of destabilization (without the re-exposure to keys linked to learning) on which the consolidation and memory persistence depend, here we investigate whether declarative memories in humans suffer spontaneous labilization/stabilization processes after learning or if they only pass through a single time window of lability."
- PósterDream content during lucid dreams and out-of body experiences, differences and similarities(2021) Gallo, Francisco; Herrero, Nerea; Tommasel, a; Gleiser, Pablo; Godoy, Daniela; Forcato, Cecilia"During sleep, humans experience offline visual content that we call dreams, which are typically emotional and lack rational judgment about their strangeness. However, during lucid dreaming (LD), subjects know they are dreaming and can control the dream content. Another type of awere dream experience is the out-of-body experience (OBE) initiated from sleep paralysis. Although the differences between non-LD, LD and OBEs are evident, there is no record in the literature of such differences in dream content and some researchers describe OBEs as a type of LD. We conducted interviews with subjects who experienced LD and subjects who had OBEs frequently. A portion of them kept a dream journal for two months with precise instructions on how to write down their dreams. The collected dreams were analyzed by automatic methods of analysis of emotions such as EmoLex and Sentisense, also with classifiers such as Empath. The dream stories provided by the participants were scored with a series of ratings using a method based on Hall and Van de Castle's dream content scoring system upon which we developed variations and additional measures to adapt to the requirements of our task. The scoring was divided into sections, hought/emotion/action, presence of entities/characters and social interactions, sensory descriptions, spatial references, fantasy content, among others. Here we present the preliminary progress of this study of oneiric content."
- PósterEmotional episodic memory formation during Covid-19 quarentine: preliminary results(2020) León, Candela S.; Bonilla, Matías; Urreta Benítez, Facundo A.; Forcato, Cecilia"Episodic memory is the ability to recover past experiences and projects ourselves into the future. It is related to contextual information (both spatially and temporally). This type of memory is highly sensitive to aging, the passage of time, forgetfulness, interference and confusion. Furthermore, episodic memory processes are modulated by both anxiety and depression. People's mental health has deteriorated due to the Covid-19 pandemic, showing higher levels in both values. There is a general consensus that pleasant or aversive events are better remembered than neutral events. Regarding false memories, there is no such consensus. Some authors found that emotional content generates more false memories, however, it was also found that negative content reduces false memories. In this study we evaluated the effects of emotional variables, such as anxiety and depression, on memory encoding and consolidation of true and false details of aversive and neutral stories."
- PósterFalse memory formation during Covid-19 quarantine: age, sleep quality and emotional variables. Preliminary results(2020) Bonilla, Matías; León, Candela S.; Urreta Benítez, Facundo A.; Lippmann-Mazzaglia, Natalia; Calvo, Camila; Garrido, Manuel; Forcato, Cecilia"False memories are memories of events that did not happen or are altered in their content. It has been shown that not only small distortions can be introduced into old memories but also entire memories of events that never occurred can be implanted. Age is a crucial factor in the formation of false memories. Currently there is no consensus on which age range is more vulnerable. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, anxiety and depression values are increased and these factors also influence the formation of false memories.Thus, our aim was to study how age and mood factors, such as anxiety and depression, influence the formation of false memories."
- PósterFormación de memorias episódicas aversivas durante la pandemia por COVID-19(2021) León, Candela S.; Bonilla, Matías; Urreta Benítez, Facundo A.; Brusco, Luis Ignacio; Wang, Jingyi; Forcato, Cecilia"La memoria episódica es la capacidad de recordar qué, dónde y cuándo ocurrió un evento. Además, existe consenso en cuanto a que los eventos agradables o aversivos se recuerdan mejor que los eventos neutrales y que los procesos de memoria episódica están modulados por la ansiedad y la depresión. La salud mental de las personas se ha deteriorado debido a la pandemia de COVID-19, mostrando un aumento de los síntomas de ansiedad y depresión. Aquí, planteamos la hipótesis de que el aumento de síntomas negativos modifica la capacidad de codificar y consolidar recuerdos. Para estudiar esto, evaluamos los efectos del contexto emocional en la codificación y consolidación de recuerdos episódicos neutrales y aversivos."
- PósterThe impact of sleep hygiene on emotional variables and memory processes in prision inmates(2021) Martín, Alejandra; Bonilla, Matías; Tassone, Leonela M.; Gallo, Francisco; Forcato, Cecilia"Having a good sleep quality is essential for a healthy life. Lack or poor quality of sleep can negatively affect various brain functions such as emotional processing and memory acquisition and consolidation. In addition, prolonged sleep deprivation, as well as the deterioration of the sleep quality are correlated with depressed mood, anger, aggressive behavior and anxiety. The prison experience can be inherently stressful and lead to disturbed sleep patterns. In prison, the most common sleep disorder is insomnia. When left untreated, it can negatively affect daytime functioning and work productivity, and it can influence inmate adverse behavior such as exacerbating irritability or aggression. Improving sleep in prison offers the potential to positively impact several of these common risk factors for both staff and inmates. Thus, we propose a sleep hygiene treatment to improve sleep habits in the prison environment. Here, we will discuss the project and preliminary data of one-month treatment of sleep hygiene in prison inmates."
- PósterThe impact of time, age and frequency of use on recognizing personal items of our closest ones: Forensic implications. Preliminary results(2021) Bonilla, Matías; Vidal, Vanesa; León, Candela S.; Urreta Benítez, Facundo A.; Forcato, Cecilia"Sometimes people have to recognize belongings of close ones that were found in places where, for example, genocides took place. This is done in order to pinpoint a missing person's last whereabouts and in some cases because the family asks to keep with their belongings. To do this, one part of the process is asking the relatives of the missing person to identify the items. However, in some cases (e.g. the missing people during the last Argentine military dictatorship) these procedures have been put in doubt by the legal system in order to prevent errors such as two or more families recognizing the same item as their own and thus to prevent nonsense re-exposure to traumatic memories. To the best of our knowledge, there is a lack of studies evaluating our performance on recognition of clothes from close ones. It is known that our capacity to correctly recognize items depends on various factors, such as age, frequency of item exposure, level of stress, sleep, among others [1-4]. Here, we will discuss preliminary data of how different factors such as time, age and frequency of use modulate the capacity to correctly and falsely recognize personal items of close ones. These results can enlighten and help the everyday practice of organizations such asthe “Argentine Team of Forensic Anthropology” (EAAF) to make decisions about the reliability of the clothing recognition by the victim’s relatives."
- PósterImpairment of aversive episodic memories during covid-19 pandemic: The impact of emotional context on memory processes(2021) León, Candela S.; Bonilla, Matías; Urreta Benítez, Facundo A.; Brusco, Luis Ignacio; Wang, Jingyi; Forcato, Cecilia"Episodic memory is the ability to recall about what, where and when the event happened. Furthermore, there is a consensus that pleasant or aversive events are better remembered than neutral events and that episodic memory processes are modulated by anxiety and depression. People's mental health has deteriorated due to the COVID-19 pandemic, showing a growth in anxiety and depressive symptoms. Here, we hypothesize that the increase in negative symptoms modifies the ability to encode and consolidate memories. To study this, we evaluated the effects of emotional context on encoding and consolidation of aversive and neutral episodic memories."
- PósterK-Complex detection algorithm in non-REM sleep(2020) Vázquez Chenlo, Aylin; Carosi, Julia; Carbonari, Giulia; Forcato, Cecilia; Ramele, Rodrigo"In order to evaluate the relation between KC and memory processes our main goal was to create a method with Machine Learning techniques to characterize and identify KCs."
- PósterK-complex localization and classification algorithm(2021) Vázquez Chenlo, Aylin; Carbonari, Giulia; Carosi, Julia; Forcato, Cecilia; Ramele, Rodrigo"K-Complexes (KCs) are events present in non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, which have cellular dynamics similar to slow waves and have 3 distinguishing components: an initial P200, a posterior N500 and a final P900. Sleep plays a fundamental role in memory consolidation, favoring the transfer of new information from the hippocampus to the neocortex and its cortico-cortical redistribution. There are currently no studies that directly link KCs with memory processes, so they are not being considered as a possible facilitating event of this hippocampal-cortical dialogue. "
- PósterNon-linear susceptibility to interferences in declarative memory formation(2021) Moyano, Malen D.; Carbonari, Giulia; Bonilla, Matías; Brusco, Luis Ignacio; Pedreira, María Eugenia; Kaczer, Laura; Forcato, Cecilia"After encoding, memories are in a labile state followed by a stabilization process known as consolidation. Once consolidated they can enter a new labile state after the presentation of a reminder (cue) of the original memory, followed by a period of re-stabilization (reconsolidation). In both processes, once stabilization/re-stabilization is accomplished the memory cannot be modified. Currently there are studies that show a rapid stabilization after 30 min, while others studies show that stabilization occurs after 6h. However, there are no studies evaluating short and long delays simultaneously. Knowing that there are spontaneous waves of destabilization (without the re-exposure to keys linked to learning) on which the consolidation and memory persistence depends, here we investigate whether declarative memories in humans go through spontaneous abilization/stabilization processes after learning or if they only pass through a single time window of lability."
- PósterOut of body experience during sleep paralysis: an altered state of consciousness. Preliminary results(2020) Herrero, Nerea; Gallo, Francisco; Gleiser, Pablo; Forcato, Cecilia"We understand consciousness as the subjective experience the "How is it..." to perceive a scene, recognize a face, hear a sound, or reflect on the experience itself. It can be considered a dynamic process and it can be temporarily divided into states. The states of consciousness depend one’s subjective experience and8 it’s associated neurobiological correlates, and they can be divided in physiological, pathological or altered states. The Out of Body Experiences (OBEs) are an altered state of consciousness, defined as the experience in which an observer perceives the world from a point of view outside of their physical body. OBEs reflect an alteration in the multisensory association cortexes, with the parieto-temporal junction (TPJ) playing a fundamental role. These experiences can occur during sleep paralysis. Sleep paralysis is caused by an intrusion of Rapid Eye Movement sleep (REM) into wakefulness. It is a state which can occur when waking up or falling asleep, in which a person is aware but unable to move or speak. It can be accompanied by a sense of a presence, auditory and visual hallucinations and in some cases OBEs. OBEs during sleep paralysis can occur spontaneously, or they can be induced by training. Here, we conducted an interview with subjects who had spontaneous OBE during sleep paralysis (S-OBE) and subjects who apply techniques to induce it (I-OBEs)."
- PósterPandemia y reconocimiento: ¿Cómo impactan las condiciones del aislamiento en la memoria de testigos oculares?(2021) Urreta Benítez, Facundo A.; Urreta Benítez, Facundo A.; León, Candela S.; Bonilla, Matías; Flores-Kanter, Pablo Ezequiel; Forcato, Cecilia
- PósterPerformance in lineups during covid-19 pandemic: influence of lock-down side effects(2021) Urreta Benítez, Facundo A.; León, Candela S.; Bonilla, Matías; Flores-Kanter, Pablo Ezequiel; Forcato, Cecilia"Our main objective was to study the impact of emotional and behavioral variables in the witnessing processes, using a natural context that generates conditions like those of a real crime."
- PósterThe role of 20-min naps on declarative memory persistence(2021) Vázquez Chenlo, Aylin; Carosi, Julia; Ramele, Rodrigo; Forcato, Cecilia"K-Complexes (KC) are events present in non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, which have cellular dynamics similar to slow waves and have 3 distinguishing components: an initial P200, a posterior N500 and a final P900. Sleep plays a fundamental role in memory consolidation, favoring the transfer of new information from the hippocampus to the neocortex and its cortico-cortical redistribution. KCs have been postulated as mediators of the hippocampal-cortical dialogue since they recruit distant neuronal populations that do not depend on cortical connections."
- PósterRole of dream content in memory processing during sleep: Preliminary setup(2021) Pretel, Matías; Herrero, Nerea; Fernández Sande, Joaquín; Brusco, Luis Ignacio; Ramele, Rodrigo; Kaczer, Laura; Forcato, Cecilia"After acquisition memories are in a labile state followed by a period of stabilization known as consolidation. This process is particularly favored by sleep, where the new information is spontaneously reactivated in the hippocampus, transferred and redistributed in neocortical networks facilitating long term consolidation. Also, during sleep, specifically during REM sleep, new memories are integrated into the stored information. From a neuroscientific perspective, dream content is proposed to be a consequence of the memory processes that occur during sleep. Thus, the incorporation of elements about the learned tasks during wakefulness in the content of a dream, can predict the performance of the task after sleep. Here, we developed a new paradigm to study whether dream content related to a new word learning task correlates with consolidation of new words and integration into the pre-existed semantic networks."
- PósterThe role of sleep in episodic memory reconsolidation: project and preliminary results(2021) Moyano, Malen D.; Tassone, Leonela M.; Brusco, Luis Ignacio; Wang, Jingyi; Forcato, Cecilia“Episodic memory is a subtype of declarative memory, defined as the ability to remember how, where and when past events occurred. Consolidated memories can be reactivated by a reminder of the original memory and can enter a new labile state, followed by a period of re-stabilization (reconsolidation). Sleep facilitates the consolidation of newly encoded memories and enhances the memory persistence 6 months after learning. It was demonstrated that a short nap accelerated memory re-stabilization of a list of nonsense syllable pairs, and facilitated the reconsolidation of the reactivated object-location memory, at short-term. Here, we aim to study the role of sleep on memory persistence of a neutral episodic memory through the reconsolidation process.”
- PósterSleep hygiene impacts on episodic memories in young and older adults during quarantine by Covid-19: preliminary results(2020) Tassone, Leonela M.; Martínez, Paula B.; Moyano, Malen D.; Solferino, Cecilia; Feldberg, Carolina; Tartaglini, Florencia; Brusco, Luis Ignacio; Forcato, Cecilia"Sleep benefits off-line consolidation of recent acquired information. Insufficient sleep impairs health, especially key components of cognition, resulting in poorer attention and impaired long-term memory. Currently, due to quarantine by Covid-19, sleep routines and sleep quality were modified and affected throughout the population. Preliminary results from our lab showed that episodic memory formation was impaired by emotional variables, such as anxiety and depression . Furthermore, sleep hygiene is fundamental to improve sleep habits. Sleep hygiene refers to a set of practices and environmental factors that are related to good sleep quality. Here, we perform a sleep hygiene treatment to study its impact on episodic memories and on emotional variables such as anxiety and depression in young and older adults during quarantine by Covid-19."