Examinando por Materia "REPELENTES"
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- Artículo de Publicación PeriódicaA combined experimental-computational approach for spatial protection efficacy assessment of controlled release devices against mosquitoes (Anopheles)(2018-03) Bernier, Ulrich R.; Kline, Daniel L.; Abad Vázquez, Agustín; Perry, Melynda; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Gurman, Pablo; D'hers, Sebastián; Elman, Noel M."This work describes the use of entomological studies combined with in silico models (computer simulations derived from numerical models) to assess the efficacy of a novel device for controlled release of spatial repellents. Controlled Release Devices (CRDs) were tested with different concentrations of metofluthrin and tested against An. quadrimaculatus mosquitoes using arm-in cage, semi-field, and outdoor studies. Arm-in-cage trials showed an approximate mean values for mosquito knockdown of 40% and mosquito bite reduction of 80% for the optimal metofluthrin formulation for a 15-minute trial. Semi-field outdoor studies showed a mean mortality of a 50% for 24 hour trial and 75% for a 48 hour trial for optimal concentrations. Outdoors studies showed an approximate mean mortality rate of 50% for a 24 hour trial for optimal concentrations. Numerical simulations based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were performed in order to obtain spatial concentration profiles for 24 hour and 48 hour periods. Experimental results were correlated with simulation results in order to obtain a functional model that linked mosquito mortality with the estimated spatial concentration for a given period of time. Such correlation provides a powerful insight in predicting the effectiveness of the CRDs as a vector-control tool. While CRDs represent an alternative to current spatial repellent delivery methods, such as coils, candles, electric repellents, and passive emanators based on impregnated strips, the presented method can be applied to any spatial vector control treatment by correlating entomological endpoints, i.e. mortality, with in-silico simulations to predict overall efficacy. The presented work therefore presents a new methodology for improving design, development and deployment of vector-control tools to reduce transmission of vector-borne diseases, including malaria and dengue."
- Artículo de Publicación PeriódicaControlled release spatial repellent devices (CRDs) as novel tools against malaria transmission: a semi‑field study in Macha, Zambia(2018-11) Stevenson, Jennifer C.; Simubali, Limonty; Mudenda, Twig; Cardol, Esther; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Abad Vázquez, Agustín; Thuma, Philip E.; Norris, Douglas E.; Perry, Melynda; Kline, Daniel L.; Cohnstaedt, Lee W.; Gurman, Pablo; D'hers, Sebastián; Elman, Noel M."The emergence of mosquitoes that can avoid indoor-deployed interventions, such as treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying, threatens the mainstay of malaria control in Zambia. Furthermore, the requirement for high coverage of these tools poses operational challenges. Spatial repellents are being assessed to supplement these vector control tools, but limitations exist in the residual effect of the repellent and the need for external power or heat for diffusion of the volatiles."
- Artículo de Publicación PeriódicaSpatial repellents transfluthrin and metofluthrin affect the behavior of Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum, and Ixodes scapularis in an in vitro vertical climb assay(Plos One, 2022) Siegel, Eric L.; Olivera, Marcos; Martínez Roig, Esteban; Perry, Melynda; Li, Andrew Y.; D'hers, Sebastián; Elman, Noel M.; Rich, Stephen M.Repellents serve an important role in bite protection. Tick repellents largely rely on biomechanisms that induce responses with direct contact, but synthetic pyrethroids used as spatial repellents against insects have received recent attention for potential use in tick protection systems. An in vitro vertical climb assay was designed to assess spatial repellency against Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum, and Ixodes scapularis adult, female ticks. Climbing behavior was assessed with and without the presence of two spatial repellents, transfluthrin and metofluthrin. Repellency parameters were defined to simulate the natural questing behavior of ambushing ticks, including measures of detachment, pseudo-questing duration, climbing deterrence, and activity. Significant effects were observed within each parameter. D. variabilis showed the greatest general susceptibility to each repellent, followed by A. americanum, and I. scapularis. The most important and integrative measure of repellency was climbing deterrence–a measure of the spatial repellent’s ability to disrupt a tick’s natural propensity to climb. Transfluthrin deterred 75% of D. variabilis, 67% of A. americanum, and 50% of I. scapularis. Metofluthrin was slightly more effective, deterring 81% of D. variabilis, 73% of A. americanum, and 72% of I. scapularis. The present study poses a novel paradigm for repellency and reports a preliminary assessment of spatial repellent effect on tick behavior. Further research will assess spatial repellency in a more natural setting, scale exposure conditions, and incorporate host cues.