Histogram of gradient orientations of signal plots applied to P300 detection

Ramele, Rodrigo
Villar, Ana Julia
Santos, Juan Miguel
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"The analysis of Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals is of ulterior importance to aid in the diagnosis of mental disease and to increase our understanding of the brain. Traditionally, clinical EEG has been analyzed in terms of temporal waveforms, looking at rhythms in spontaneous activity, subjectively identifying troughs and peaks in Event-Related Potentials (ERP), or by studying graphoelements in pathological sleep stages. Additionally, the discipline of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) requires new methods to decode patterns from non-invasive EEG signals. This field is developing alternative communication pathways to transmit volitional information from the Central Nervous System. The technology could potentially enhance the quality of life of patients affected by neurodegenerative disorders and other mental illness. This work mimics what electroencephalographers have been doing clinically, visually inspecting, and categorizing phenomena within the EEG by the extraction of features from images of signal plots. These features are constructed based on the calculation of histograms of oriented gradients from pixels around the signal plot. It aims to provide a new objective framework to analyze, characterize and classify EEG signal waveforms. The feasibility of the method is outlined by detecting the P300, an ERP elicited by the oddball paradigm of rare events, and implementing an offline P300-based BCI Speller. The validity of the proposal is shown by offline processing a public dataset of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) patients and an own dataset of healthy subjects."