Effect of PEEP on dead space in an experimental model of ARDS

Tusman, Gerardo
Gogniat, Emiliano
Madorno, Matías
Otero, Pablo
Dianti, José
Fernández Ceballos, Ignacio
Ceballos, Martín
Verdier, Natalí
Böhm, Stephan H.
Rodríguez, Pablo Oscar
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"Background: Difference between Bohr and Enghoff dead space are not well described in ARDS patients. We aimed to analyze the effect of PEEP on the Bohr and Enghoff dead spaces in a model of ARDS. Methods: 10 pigs submitted to randomized PEEP steps of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm H2O were evaluated with the use of lung ultrasound images, alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (P(A-a)O2), transpulmonary mechanics, and volumetric capnography at each PEEP step. Results: At PEEP > 15 cm H2O, atelectasis and P(A-a)O2 progressively decreased while endinspiratory transpulmonary pressure (PL), end-expiratory PL, and driving PL increased (all P < .001). Bohr dead space (VDBohr/VT), airway dead space (VDaw/VT), and alveolar dead space (VDalv/VTalv) reached their highest values at PEEP 30 cm H2O (0.69 0.10, 0.53 0.13 and 0.35 0.06, respectively). At PEEP <15 cm H2O, the increases in atelectasis and P(A-a)O2 were associated with negative end-expiratory PL and highest driving PL. VDBohr/VT and VDaw/VT showed the lowest values at PEEP 0 cm H2O (0.51 0.08 and 0.32 0.08, respectively), whereas VDalv/VTalv increased to 0.27 0.05. Enghoff dead space and its derived VDalv/VTalv showed high values at low PEEPs (0.86 0.02 and 0.79 0.04, respectively) and at high PEEPs (0.84 0.04 and 0.65 0.12), with the lowest values at 15 cm H2O (0.77 0.05 and 0.61 0.11, respectively; all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Bohr dead space was associated to lung stress, whereas Enghoff dead space was partially affected by the shunt effect. Key words: dead space; PEEP; lung stress; ARDS; VILI; carbon dioxide."